[Learn Korean E3] Korean Basic Alphabet Letters with Chart

안녕하세요! 토미입니다.

Let’s have fun learning the beautiful language, Korean!

I made this lesson for the students who have never learned Korean before.

By learning it, I will guide you to pass the official world known Korean language test, TOPIK2.

In today’s class, we will learn how to read the most basic letters, which we call the basic sound.

By the time you finish watching this video, you will be able to read about 80% of all Hangul letters, even if you don’t understand their meanings.

80%, that is very impressive.

그럼 시작할게요!
Let’s get started!

[Elementary Korean #3] Korean Basic Alphabet Letters with Chart

Hangul Table

Now, let’s start practicing how to pronounce the consonants.

Consonants? already sounds difficult, right?

I will briefly explain concepts.

The basic sounds are made up of basic vowels and consonants.

But what are vowels and consonants?

In English vowels are A, E, I, O, U and consonants are other sounds like K, T, S, M, and etcetera.

It is also same in Korean.

Hangul Table PDF

Please see the first page of the hangul table.

There are 14 consonants in total, which are ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄷ,ㄹ,ㅁ,ㅂ,ㅅ,ㅇ, ㅈ,ㅊ,ㅋ,ㅌ,ㅍ,ㅎ.

All of these consonants were made based on the shape of your mouth when you pronounce them.

If you try to memorize the letters together with the shape of your mouth, you can improve your pronunciation!

Basic Sounds

Let me explain one thing first.

There are characters with two different pronunciations in the orange column of consonants.

ㄱ is k and g, ㄷ is t and d, ㅂ is p and b, and ㅈ is ch and j, right?

This means that when the consonant comes at the beginning of a word, you read it with the left pronunciation.

When it comes in the middle of a word, you read it with the right pronunciation.

In today’s class, we will use the pronunciation on the left.

ㄱ(기역) “k”

First, for ㄱ(기역), the sound comes from the ceiling of your mouth with “k” sound.

Open your mouth and leave your tongue at the bottom to pronounce ㄱ. To write ㄱ(기역), you first write a horizontal bar from left to right and then pull the pen straight down.

When you combine this with the vowels that we have learned in the previous lesson, it becomes like this.

가갸거겨고교구규그기

ㄴ(니은) “n”

Next, ㄴ(니은) sounds “n”, and when you pronounce this, your tongue touches behind your front teeth.

Can you see that this was made based on the position of the tongue?

To write ㄴ(니은), you draw the vertical line first from top to bottom, and then the horizontal line from left to write.

When you combine this with the vowels, it will be like this.

나냐너녀노뇨누뉴느니

ㄷ(디귿) “t”

Next, ㄷ(디귿) sounds “t”.

Same as the sound of “n” your tongue touches behind the front teeth when you pronounce ㄷ(디귿).

To write, you write a horizontal line from left to right, then the vertical line from top to bottom, and at last the horizontal line from left to right.

Together with the vowels, it looks like this.

다댜더뎌도됴두듀드디

ㄹ(리을) “L”

Next is ㄹ(리을).

This one is similar to “L” sound, and the tongue touches behind the front teeth, then goes behind the mouth a little bit for a second.

The shape ㄹ shows this movement of the tongue.

When you write ㄹ, write a horizontal line from left to right, then pull the pen down.

After that, write the other horizontal line from left to write, then the vertical line from top to bottom, and at last a horizontal line from left to write.

When you combine this with the vowels. it becomes like this.

라랴러려로료루류르리

ㅁ(미음) “m”

Next, ㅁ(미음) sounds “m” and you must close your mouth to pronounce this one.

The shape is a square because it shows the shape of the mouth being closed.

ㅁ(미음) ㅁ(미음) To write ㅁ(미음), write a vertical line from top to the bottom.

After that, draw the second line from the top of the first line, and write the horizontal line from left to right and go down.

Finally a horizontal line from left to right.

Together with the vowels, it will be like this.

마먀머며모묘무뮤므미

ㅂ(비읍) “p”

Next is ㅂ(비읍), which has the “p” sound.

Similar to 미음, you need to close your mouth when you pronounce 비읍, but with a little bit of air coming out from the mouth.

The shape of this consonant shows that the mouth is closed but a little bit of air is coming out.

To write, first start with the two vertical lines from top to bottom, and finish with the two horizontal lines from left to write.

Combining this with the vowels, you can see these letters.

바뱌버벼보뵤부뷰브비

ㅅ(시옷) “s”

Next, ㅅ(시옷) has the “s” sound.

When it is pronounced, the sound comes out from the small gap between the teeth.

So the shape of ㅅ (시옷) was created based on the shape of the teeth.

When you write ㅅ (시옷), you write a diagonal line from top to bottom left, then another diagonal line from top left to bottom right.

Together with the vowels, it becomes like this.

사샤서셔소쇼수슈스시

ㅇ(이응) “ng”

Next is ㅇ(이응), which we learned in the previous lessons.

Let’s review this a little bit. The sound is like “ng”. When you pronounce this, make your mouth round.

This is why the shape is a circle.

It’s easy to remember, right?

You write ㅇ이응 counterclockwise. When combined with the vowels, it looks like this.

아야어여오요우유으이

ㅈ(지읒) “ch”

Next is ㅈ(지읒) which makes a “ch” sound.

Same as when pronouncing ㅅ, the sound should come from the small gap between your teeth.

Because ㅈ sounds a little stronger than ㅅ, there is a horizontal bar on top of ㅅ.

When you write ㅈ, start with a horizontal line from left to write, and then the two diagonal lines, first from top to bottom left and then from the top right to bottom right.

Together with the vowels, it becomes like this.

자쟈저져조죠주쥬즈지

ㅎ(히읗) “h”

Finally, ㅎ(히읗) has the sound of “h”.

Similar to 이응, you need to make a space in the mouth.

But since you spit out more air than 이응, the shape of the consonant is like this ㅎ.

It also looks like a pot, doesn’t it? Let’s pronounce it together.

To write, write a small line from top to bottom, then a horizontal line from left to write, and at last a circle. Together with the vowels, it looks like this.

하햐허혀호효후휴흐히

So we have learned the basic sounds today.
Putting them all together, it looks like this.

가갸거겨고교구규그기
나냐너녀노뇨누뉴느니
다댜더뎌도됴두듀드디
라랴러려로료루류르리
마먀머며모묘무뮤므미
바뱌버벼보뵤부뷰브비
사샤서셔소쇼수슈스시
아야어여오요우유으이
자쟈저져조죠주쥬즈지
하햐허혀호효후휴흐히

Let’s practice saying these letters many many times and remember them.

That is all for today. Please try using what you have learned today with your Korean friends.

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그럼 오늘도 행복 가득, 웃음 가득한 하루 되세요! 한국어 화이팅, 화이팅, 화이팅!!

Have a wonderful day!