[Learn Korean E10] ”이/가 아닙니다” (Negative Sentence), “이것, 그것, 저것, 무엇”

안녕하세요. 토미입니다.

Are you excited to learn Korean?

I am teaching Korean so that you guys can speak Korean fluently and even can pass TOPIK Ⅰ, level 1 and 2.

So let’s master the whole beginner level, and become a super master of Korean!

Last class, we learned how to end a sentence using [입니다] which is [is, are, am] in English.
In opposite, today, we will make a negative sentence using [아닙니다], which is [is not~].

Also, by the end of today’s class, we will learn how to use [이것, 그것, 저것, 무엇] “this, that, that, what” to make sentences like “What is this?”, “It is water” and etc.

In today’s class, let’s first listen to a conversation with an English subtitle.

Next, I will explain the words, phrases, and grammar that were used in the conversation.

After that, let’s listen to the conversation again, but without a subtitle.

Finally, we will practice reading aloud.
There will also be homework afterwards.

그럼 시작할게요!

Listen to the Conversation

Let’s listen to the conversation.

The title of today’s conversation is [그것은 필통이 아닙니다.]

The conversation happens when I visit a store to buy a pencil case and ask some questions to a clerk.

Let’s first listen to the conversation with an English subtitle.
Here you go!

  • 토미: 이것은 필통입니까?
    Tommy: Is this a pencil case?
  • 점원: 아니요, 그것은 필통이 아닙니다. 안경케이스입니다.
    Clerk: No, that is not a pencil case. It is a glasses case.
  • 토미: 저것은 무엇입니까? 필통이 아닙니까?
    Tommy: What is that? Is it not a pencil case?
  • 점원: 네. 맞습니다. 저것은 필통입니다.
    Clerk: Yes, it is. That is a pencil case.

The Words and Phrases

  • 토미: 이것은 필통입니까?

[이것] is “this thing”.

Here, [이] means “this”, and [것] means “thing”.

However, in Korean, If you already know the object you are talking about, [이것] can be also translated as “this” in English.

Let’s see another two adjectives.

[그] means that, and [저] means that.

Why there are two that in Korean?

[그], and [저] are both “that”, but you use [그] when an object is close to the listener.

And [저] for an object far from both you and the listener.

So, [이] is the closest from you, [그] is a little bit far away from you and [저] is far far away from you.

Do you get the concept of [이, 그, 저]?
These can be added to [것] thing and make words like [이것, 그것, 저것]. “this thing, that thing, that thing”.

By the way, “which” is [어느 것].

[이것, 그것, 저것] have a [ㅅ] final consonant at the bottom, so you have to use a topic marker, [은] to say [이것은 this] [저것은 that].

[필통] means a pencil case. A word similar to this is [물통].

What is [물통]? Can you guess? Have you ever heard the word [물]?

[물] means water and [물통] means a water bottle.

The two words are similar in a way that they are both a cylinder container for putting things in.

  • 점원: 아니요, 그것은 필통이 아닙니다. 안경케이스입니다.

We have learned [네/아니요] “Yes/No”in the previous lesson.

People often shorten [아니요] and say [아뇨].

[안경케이스] means “a Glasses case”.

So, [안경] is glasses and [케이스] is case. This word came from English.

  • 토미: 저것은 무엇입니까? 필통이 아닙니까?
[무엇] indicates “what”.

It is common to shorten it and say [뭐] instead.

In Korean dramas, the boyfriend often says [뭐? 뭐?] when the girlfriend is angry at him. It means “What? What?”

  • 점원: 네. 맞습니다. 저것은 필통입니다.
[맞습니다] means “Yes, it is” , “That’s right”,or “That’s correct” in Korean.

The phrase originated from the word [맞다], which means “correct”.

You may also use [그렇습니다], which is a similar expression as [맞습니다].

Grammar Lesson

이/가

Now, let’s move on to the grammar!
The first grammar to learn is [이/가].  We call this the Subject Marker.

This is because you can use this particle to indicate the subject to the listener.

Tammy, but there are two choices, right? [이] and [가]?
Which one should I use?

It depends on whether the word coming before has a final consonant, [받침] or not.

If the word before has a final consonant, you use [이], and if it does not have a final consonant, you use [가].

With a final consonant + [이], without a final consonant + [가]

How do Koreans know whether the word has a final consonant or not so quickly?

I think they get used to it. Native English speakers can instantly distinguish “he is, they are, and I am.”

When I was learning English, this was very confusing.
“he-is, they- is, nonono, they are, I- am.”

So, it is similar to that. It is of course important for you to learn the basics of Korean, but let’s also focus on getting used to Korean by listening to many many Korean songs or dramas.

Let’s go back to the topic.

I will give you a sentence.

  • 저는 이 ○○이 좋습니다.
    I prefer this ○○.

In this sentence, [저는] means “I”, [이] is “this”, [좋습니다] means “prefer”.

First, I will give you exemple words with a final consonant.

Please pay attention to the Subject Marker.

저는 이 선생님이 좋습니다.
I prefer this teacher.

Here, you say [선생님이] because [선생님] has a final consonant.

저는 이 건물이 좋습니다.
I prefer this building.

Here, you say [건물이] because [건물] has a final consonant.

저는 이 면세점이 좋습니다.
I prefer this duty-free store.

Here, you say [면세점이] because [면세점] has a final consonant.

Let’s also learn some words without a final consonant using the same sentence!

저는 이 한국드라마가 좋습니다.
I prefer this Korean drama.

Here, you say [한국드라마가] because [한국드라마] does not have a final consonant.

저는 이 노래가 좋습니다.
I prefer this song.

Here, you say [노래가] because [노래] does not have a final consonant.

저는 이 마트가 좋습니다.
I prefer this mart.

Here, you say [마트가] because [마트] does not have a final consonant.

Quiz

Here is a simple quiz to help you understand the grammar we learned today.

Which of [이/가] do you think goes into the parentheses?

저는 이 초콜렛( ) 좋습니다.
I prefer this chocolate.

(1)이 (2)가

The answer is number (1) [이].
This is because [초콜렛] has a final consonant.
So, it is going to be 저는 이 초콜렛(이) 좋습니다.

Are you ready for one more quiz? Here you go!

저는 이 반지( ) 좋습니다
I prefer this ring.

(1)이 (2)가

The answer is number (2)!
[반지] does not have a final consonant.
So, you use [가].
저는 이 반지(가) 좋습니다. is going to be the correct answer.

Let’s move on to the next grammar.

이/가 아닙니다

When you add [이/가 아닙니다] , it becomes [is not/are not/ am not].

In the conversation, there was a phrase.

  • 그것은 필통이 아닙니다.
    That is not a pencil case.

To make a question form, you simply need to change [아닙니다] to [아닙니까?] very easy, right?

Let’s make example sentences in a question form and a negative form together.

이것은 감자가 아닙니까?
Isn’t it a potato?

이것은 감자가 아닙니다.
It is not a potato.

As you can see here, [감자] does not have a final consonant, so you use
[감자가 아닙니까]? or [아닙니다].

Let’s take a look at the next one.

당신은 연예인이 아닙니까?
Aren’t you a celebrity?

저는 연예인이 아닙니다.
I am not a celebrity.

Here, [연예인] has a final consonant, so you attach [이].
Together, it becomes [연예인이 아닙니다/아닙니까]?

Conversation (Korean 0nly)

Back to the Conversation without English Subtitle.

Now that we have finished going through the vocabulary and grammar, let’s go back to the conversation, this time without the Japanese subtitle.

See how much you can follow.

  • 토미: 이것은 필통입니까?
  • 점원: 아니요, 그것은 필통이 아닙니다. 안경케이스입니다.
  • 토미: 저것은 무엇입니까? 필통이 아닙니까?
  • 점원: 네. 맞습니다. 저것은 필통입니다.

Conversation Practice

Next, let’s practice reading the sentences aloud.

Imagine as if you are shopping in Korea!

As this section is one of the few practice sections for you, please try not to skip and read each word aloud.

  • 토미: 이것은 필통입니까?
    Tommy: Is this a pencil case?
  • 점원: 아니요, 그것은 필통이 아닙니다. 안경케이스입니다.
    Clerk: No, that is not a pencil case. It is a glasses case.
  • 토미: 저것은 무엇입니까? 필통이 아닙니까?
    Tommy: What is that? Is it not a pencil case?
  • 점원: 네. 맞습니다. 저것은 필통입니다.
    Clerk: Yes, it is. That is a pencil case.

Please try reading the conversation aloud 5 times.

Homework

We have two assignments today.

The first homework is writing.
As we have learned how to make a negative sentence and how to use the words [이것, 그것, 저것, 무엇, 어느 것], please write a sentence like “This is not a ~. It is a ~”. in the comment section.
For example,

  • 이것은 물이 아닙니다. 이것은 술입니다.
    This is not water. This is an alcohol.

The second homework is memorizing the vocabulary.

Please memorize the vocabularies from #41 [감사합니다] to #80 [겨울방학] on the first page of my Beginner Level Vocabulary List.

I have created a 40-word quiz on my website, so please try the quiz after memorizing the vocabularies.

If you have completed all your homework or have got a full score on the vocabulary quiz, please share it in the comment section with me.

I look forward to reading your comments every day.

That’s all for today. See you again next time.

그럼 오늘도 행복 가득, 웃음 가득한 하루 되세요! 한국어 화이팅, 화이팅, 화이팅!!

Vocabulary Test : 40 Questions

There will be 40 multiple choice questions in total displayed in random order, testing on Vocabulary #41~80 from the Beginner Level Vocabulary List.
Share your Quiz result through Twitter!