[Learn Korean E39] “Noun Modifier -인”, “-아/어 있다”

안녕하세요. 토미입니다.

The theme of today’s class is【현관 앞에 나와 있어요.】“I’m out in front of the entrance door.”

Today, we will learn a noun modifier 인, “who is” and -아/어 있다 “is -ing/-ed” which expresses a continuing state of a completed action.

By knowing these grammar rules, I am sure you can solve all quizzes on TOPIK smoothly and be the super master of Korean!

그럼 시작할게요.

Listen to the Conversation

The theme of today’s conversation is【현관 앞에 나와 있어요】“I am out in front of the entrance door.”

It seems Sangmin and Tammy are heading somewhere.
Tammy seems to be waiting for Sangmin. Will Sangmin come soon?

Let’s try to make a guess after listening to their conversation carefully.
그럼 들어보세요!

  • 상민:여보세요, 토미 씨. 저 금방 도착할 것 같아요. 토미 씨 지금 어디 있어요?
    Sangmin:Hello, Tammy. I think I’ll arrive soon. Where are you right now?
  • 토미:저 지금 집 현관 앞에 나와 있어요.
    Tammy:I’m out in front of the entrance door of my house right now.
  • 상민:벌써요? 잠깐만요. 거의 다 왔어요.
    Sangmin:Already? Wait a moment. I’m almost there.
  • 토미:상민 씨, 여기예요. 여기!
    Tammy:Sangmin, here. Here!
  • 상민:여기 있었군요, 토미 씨. 근데 언제부터 내려와 있었어요? 많이 안 기다렸죠?
    Sangmin:Oh, here you were, Tammy. By the way, when did you come down here? You didn’t wait too long, did you?
  • 토미:네. 많이 안 기다렸어요. 마침 대학 후배인 친구가 찾아와서 수다를 떨고 있었어요.
    Tammy:No, I didn’t wait that long. A friend who is a junior in college just came to visit, so we were chatting.
  • 상민:그렇군요. 오늘은 딱 등산할 날씨네요. 그럼 우리 갈까요?
    Sangmin:Oh, I see. It’s a perfect day for hiking today. Shall we go then?
  • 토미:네, 빨리 출발해요.
    Tammy:Yes, let’s get going quickly.

Vocabulary and Phrases

I’ll explain the vocabulary and phrases while going over the conversation one sentence at a time.

  • 토미:저 지금 집 현관 앞에 나와 있어요.

현관 is an “entrance door.”
Let’s also learn other words related to spaces in the house.

means a “room” and 부엌 means a “kitchen.”
거실 is a “living room”, 침실 is a “bedroom” and 베란다 is a “veranda/terrace.”

나오다 means “to come out.”
If you change 오다 to 가다 and say 나가다, it means “to go out.”

In Korean, you have to distinguish these two.
For example, 지금 잠깐 밖에 나왔어요 means “I just came outside.”
And 선배는 방금 나갔습니다 means “My colleague just went out.”

  • 상민:벌써요? 잠깐만요. 거의 다 왔어요.

잠깐 means “a little (in terms of time)/a moment.”
So 잠깐만요 means “Please wait for a moment.”

And it is a phrase that Koreans use very often.
Please note that it is pronounced 잠깐만뇨 with ㄴ pronunciation, not 잠깐마뇨.

Next word is 거의, which means “almost,” and means “all/everything.”
In today’s conversation, Sangmin says 거의 다 왔어요 “I’m almost there.”
Like this, when 거의 and 다 used together, it means “almost all.”

  • 상민:여기 있었군요, 토미 씨. 근데 언제부터 내려와 있었어요? 많이 안 기다렸죠?

내려오다 means “to come down.”
When you say 내려가다, it would mean “to go down.”

  • 토미:네. 많이 안 기다렸어요. 마침 대학 후배인 친구가 찾아와서 수다를 떨고 있었어요.

마침 means “just in time/at just the right time.”
For example, 마침 버스가 오네요. means “The but is coming just in time.”

수다를 떨다 means “to chat.”
수다 itself means “chat/chatter” and you can use this expression in a sentence like 또 수다가 시작됐군요. “the chat started again”

  • 상민:그렇군요. 오늘은 딱 등산할 날씨네요. 그럼 우리 갈까요?

means “just right.”
And 딱 맞다 is “to fit just right,” and 딱 좋다 is “just good.”
딱 등산할 날씨 means “just the right weather for hiking” which in other words would mean “the perfect weather for hiking.”

  • 토미:네, 빨리 출발해요.

출발 is a “departure,” so 출발하다 means “to depart/to start heading.”
The opposite word, as mentioned in the conversation, is 도착 an “arrival” and 도착하다 means “to arrive.”

Grammar

-인  that/which/who is~

Let’s look at the noun modifier, 인 “that is/who is.”

You can use it to modify nouns.

For example, 회사원인 오빠 would be like “My brother who is an office worker.”
You can see 회사원인 “who is a office worker” is describing a noun 오빠 “my brother.”
That’s what you are going to learn today.

To apply this grammar is very simple.
You just need to add after a noun regardless of a final consonant.

For example, 학생 is a “student.”
It has a final consonant, but you just attach 인 to make 학생인 which means “(a person) who is a student.”

선배 is a “senior student” which does not have a final consonant.
You just attach 인 to make 선배인 which means “(a person) who is a senior student.”

If you want to make an honorific expression to indicate someone who you need to respect like an elderly, you just need to add 이신 instead.

For example, 의사이신 할아버지 would be “grandfather who is a doctor.”

Then, let’s take a look at a sentence in today’s conversation.

Ex.1)
대학 후배인 친구가 찾아와서 수다를 떨고 있었어요.
A friend who is a junior from my college just came to visit, so we were chatting.

Let’s focus on 대학 후배인 친구 “a friend who is a junior in my college.”
대학 후배 is “ a junior from my college.”
You just have to attach 인 to 대학 후배 to make 대학 후배인 “a friend who is a junior in my college.”

Ex.2)
학생인 경우에는 30% 할인됩니다.
If the consumer is a student, it is 30% off.

Before we study the grammar, I will explain some words in the sentence.
경우 is a “in the case/if” and 할인 is a “discount.”
So 할인되다 means “to be discounted.” Percentage(%) is pronounced as 프로 in Korean.

In this example, 인 is added to the word 학생 a “student” and it becomes 학생인.
So it would mean something like 학생인 경우, “If the consumer is a student…”

Quiz

・한국어를 (          ) 아버지한테서 배웠어요.
I learned Korean from my father who is a university professor.

(1)대학교수이고 (2)대학교수이신

The answer is (2).
대학 교수 is a “university professor.”
And 아버지 “father” is an elder person for sure, so you want to use an honorific form of 인, which is 이신. You attach 이신 to 대학교수 to make 대학 교수이신.

The whole sentence would be 한국어를 대학교수이신 아버지한테서 배웠어요.

-아/어 있다  remain -ed/ing

Let’s learn the grammar 아/어 있다,”is -ing/-ed, remain -ed/-ing” which expresses the continuation of an action or the existence of a state.

For example, when you stand, you remain standing.
You can express “I remain standing” by using today’s grammar, 아/어 있다.

Let’s see how to use this grammar.

First, let’s think about the 요 form.
Then, remove 요 and add 있다 instead.

For example,

The 요 form of 앉다 “to sit” is 앉아요.
You remove 요 and add 있다 instead to make 앉아 있다 “I remain seated.”

The 요 form of 서다 “to stand” is 서요.
You remove 요 and add 있다 to make 서 있다 “I remain standing.”

Ex.1)
저 지금 집 현관 앞에 나와 있어요.
I’m out in front of the entrance door of my house right now.

The 요 form of 나오다 “to come out” is 나와요, so you remove 요 and add 있다 to make 나와 있다 “I am staying outside,” which simply means “I am out.”

Ex.2)
언제부터 내려와 있었어요?
When did you come down here?

The 요 form of 내려오다 “to come down” is 내려와요, so you remove 요 and add 있다 to make 내려와 있다, “to be down (at the place).”

Quiz

・어머니는 어제부터 아파서 (            ).
My mother has been sick since yesterday, so she is lying in bed.

(1)눕고 있어요 (2)누워 계세요

The answer is (2).
눕다 is “to lie on (bed).”
Here, the word finishes with ㅂ final consonant, so you need to be aware.
Because 눕다 is ㅂ irregular. Its 요 form is 누워요.
From 누워요, you just need to remove 요 and add 있다, so it becomes 누워 있다.
By the way, in Korean, when you are talking about someone older or upper than you, you use an honorific expression of 있다, which is 계시다. So, the correct expression is 누워 계세요.

The whole sentence would be 어머니는 어제부터 아파서 누워 계세요.

Conversation (Korean only)

Now, let’s listen to the conversation once again, but this time only in Korean.

I am sure you can hear more words and grammar this time.
그럼 확인해 보세요!

  • 상민:여보세요, 토미 씨. 저 금방 도착할 것 같아요. 토미 씨 지금 어디 있어요?
  • 토미:저 지금 집 현관 앞에 나와 있어요.
  • 상민:벌써요? 잠깐만요. 거의 다 왔어요.
  • 토미:상민 씨, 여기예요. 여기!
  • 상민:여기 있었군요, 토미 씨. 근데 언제부터 내려와 있었어요? 많이 안 기다렸죠?
  • 토미:네. 많이 안 기다렸어요. 마침 대학 후배인 친구가 찾아와서 수다를 떨고 있었어요.
  • 상민:그렇군요. 오늘은 딱 등산할 날씨네요. 그럼 우리 갈까요?
  • 토미:네, 빨리 출발해요.

Conversation Practice

I will play the conversation one sentence at a time.

So please read along with me.
그럼 큰소리로 읽어 보세요!

  • 상민:여보세요, 토미 씨. 저 금방 도착할 것 같아요. 토미 씨 지금 어디 있어요?
    Sangmin:Hello, Tammy. I think I’ll arrive soon. Where are you right now?
  • 토미:저 지금 집 현관 앞에 나와 있어요.
    Tammy:I’m out in front of the entrance door of my house right now.
  • 상민:벌써요? 잠깐만요. 거의 다 왔어요.
    Sangmin:Already? Wait a moment. I’m almost there.
  • 토미:상민 씨, 여기예요. 여기!
    Tammy:Sangmin, here. Here!
  • 상민:여기 있었군요, 토미 씨. 근데 언제부터 내려와 있었어요? 많이 안 기다렸죠?
    Sangmin:Oh, here you were, Tammy. By the way, when did you come down here? You didn’t wait too long, did you?
  • 토미:네. 많이 안 기다렸어요. 마침 대학 후배인 친구가 찾아와서 수다를 떨고 있었어요.
    Tammy:No, I didn’t wait that long. A friend who is a junior in college just came to visit, so we were chatting.
  • 상민:그렇군요. 오늘은 딱 등산할 날씨네요. 그럼 우리 갈까요?
    Sangmin:Oh, I see. It’s a perfect day for hiking today. Shall we go then?
  • 토미:네, 빨리 출발해요.
    Tammy:Yes, let’s get going quickly.

Homework

We have two homework assignments.
First, make a sentence using -인 “who is,” and 아/어 있다 “to remain -ed.”
For example,

  • 내 친구인 유진이는 지금 일본에 와 있어요.
    Yoojin who is my friend is in Japan right now.

The second homework is memorizing vocabulary.
Please memorize 40 words from #1161 to #1200 on page 15 of the Elementary Vocabulary list.

That’s all for today. Thank you for watching till the end.
그럼 오늘도 행복 가득, 웃음 가득한 하루 되세요! 한국어 화이팅, 화이팅, 화이팅!!

Vocabulary Test : 40 Questions

There will be 40 multiple choice questions in total displayed in random order, testing on Vocabulary #1161~1200 from the Beginner Level Vocabulary List.
Share your Quiz result through Twitter!