[Learn Korean E43] “-(으)ㄹ 때”, “-았/었을 때”, “-(으)ㅂ시다”

안녕하세요. 토미입니다.

The theme of today’s class is 【어렸을 때가 생각이 나네요】“It reminds me of the time when I was little.”

Today, we will learn -(으)ㄹ 때 “when~” and -았/었을 때 “when (I) was~.”
Then, we will learn -(으)ㅂ시다 “Let’s (do something)” and get to know how to suggest things to others.

그럼 시작할게요!

Listen to the Conversation

The theme of today’s conversation is 【어렸을 때가 생각이 나네요】 “It reminds me of the time when I was little.”

Tammy seems to have tried making Japanese cuisine.
What’s Sangmin’s reaction after eating her dish? Let’s listen carefully to the conversation and try to guess.

그럼 들어보세요!

  • 토미:상민 씨는 일본요리 좋아하세요?
    Tammy:Do you like Japanese cuisine, Sangmin?
  • 상민:일식이요? 우리 어머니가 좋아하셔서 어렸을 때는 자주 먹었는데 요즘에는 가끔 먹는 정도예요.
    Sangmin : Japanese cuisine? My mother likes Japanese food, so I used to eat it often when I was a child, but nowadays I rarely eat it.
  • 토미:그렇군요. 이거 제가 좀 만들어 봤는데 어때요?
    Tammy:I see. I made these. Would you like to try?
  • 상민:이거 토미 씨가 혼자 다 했어요? 와, 맛있겠다.
    Sangmin:Did you make all of these by yourself, Tammy? Wow, it looks delicious.
  • 토미:요리책을 보면서 만들었는데 한번 먹어 보세요.
    Tammy:I made it by looking at a cook book. Please try some.
  • 상민:와, 진짜 맛있다. 어렸을 때가 생각이 나네요.
    Sangmin:Wow, it’s really delicious. It reminds me of the time when I was little.
  • 토미:정말요? 다행이에요. 혹시 싱거우면 소금이나 간장을 좀 쳐서 드세요.
    Tammy:Really? I’m so relieved. If it’s not salty enough, please add a bit of salt or soy sauce and eat.
  • 상민:아니요. 간이 딱 맞아요. 이거 다른 사람들에게도 나눠 줍시다. 다들 좋아할 거예요.
    Sangmin:No, it tastes perfect. Let’s share these with others as well. I’m sure they’ll all love it.
  • 토미:그럴까요? 그랬으면 좋겠는데…
    Tammy:Will they? I hope so…

Vocabulary and Phrases

I’ll explain the vocabulary and phrases in detail from now.

  • 토미:상민 씨, 상민 씨는 일본요리 좋아하세요?

요리 is “cuisine.”
So 일본요리 is “Japanese cuisine,” 한국요리 is “Korean cuisine,” and 중국요리 is “Chinese cuisine.”

  • 상민:일식이요? 우리 어머니가 좋아하셔서 어렸을 때는 자주 먹었는데 요즘에는 가끔 먹는 정도예요.

You can also say “cuisine” as “something + 식.”
For example, 일식 is “Japanese cuisine,” 한식 is “Korean cuisine,” and 중식 is “Chinese cuisine.”

어리다 means “young/ infantile(tail)/ juvenile.”
So 어린 아이 means a “little child.”

가끔 means “occasionally/once in a while.”
A similar word is 때때로 “sometimes.”

정도 means “degree/about.”
가끔 먹는 정도 would mean “(to the degree of) eating once in a while.”

  • 토미:그렇군요. 이거 제가 좀 만들어 봤는데 어때요?
  • 상민:이거 토미 씨가 혼자 다 했어요? 와, 맛있겠다.
  • 토미:요리책을 보면서 만들었는데 한번 먹어 보세요.

요리 is “cooking,” so 요리 책 is a “cook book.”

한번 means “once.”
Here, -번 is the unit when counting number of times.
For example, 한 번, 두 번, 세 번 means “once, twice, three times.”

  • 상민:와, 진짜 맛있다. 어렸을 때가 생각이 나네요.

진짜 means “really.” A similar word is 정말.
Korean people use 진짜 in everyday conversation with close friends or family members because it sounds more frank than 정말.

The 생각 can be used in various contexts with slight differences, but when it comes to 생각이 나다, it means “to remind of.”

  • 토미:정말요? 다행이에요. 혹시 싱거우면 소금이나 간장을 좀 쳐서 드세요.

다행 means a “relief.”
You can say 정말 다행이에요 “I’m really relieved.”

소금 is a “salt,” and 간장 is a “soy sauce.”

치다 means “to add/to pour.”
So, 소금이나 간장을 좀 쳐서 드세요. means “Please, add some salt or soy sauce.”

By the way, a similar expression would be 찍다, which means to “to dip.”
So the phrase 간장에 찍어 먹다 means “to dip in soy sauce and eat.”

  • 상민:아니요. 간이 딱 맞아요. 이거 다른 사람들에게도 나눠 줍시다. 다들 좋아할 거예요.

means a “saltiness.”
means “just right.”
So, 간이 딱 맞다 translates to “the saltiness is just right,” which means “it tastes perfect.”

나누다 means “to divide/to share.” 다른 사람들에게도 나눠 주다 means “to share with others as well.”
When you say 다들, it means “everyone/everybody.”
For example, 다들 준비됐어요? would mean “Is everyone ready?”

Grammar

-(으)ㄹ 때 (when~), -았/었을 때 (when I was~)

Let’s first study -(으)ㄹ 때 and -았/었을 때.
때 means “time.”

This 때 is used in the form of -(으)ㄹ 때 to express “when~.”

Also, -았/었을 때 means “when I was~.”

Then let’s see how to apply -(으)ㄹ 때, which has 3 patterns of use.

1. First, when a stem of verb or adjective has a final consonant, you add -을 때, so 먹다 becomes 먹을 때 “when eating.”

2. Second, when a stem of verb or adjective does not have a final consonant, you add -ㄹ 때, so 하다 becomes 할 때 “when doing.”

3. Third, when a stem finishes with ㄹ final consonant, you just need to add 때 to the stem.For example, 놀다 “to play” becomes 놀 때 “when playing.”

Next, let’s study how to use -았/었을 때.

For verbs, it starts with 았/었.
So you start off thinking the original form of the past tense such as 갔다, “went” or 먹었다, “ate.”

And then, you add “을 때” to make 갔을 때, “when I went,” or 먹었을 때 “when I ate.”

For nouns, when a word has a final consonant, you attach 이었을 때, and when it does not have a final consonant, you add 였을 때.

For example, a word with a final consonant like 학생 “student” becomes 학생이었을 때 “when I was a student.”

For a word without a final consonant like 가수 “singer,” it becomes 가수였을 때 “When I was a singer.”

Then, let’s look at an example sentence from today’s conversation.

Ex.1)
어렸을 때는 자주 먹었는데 요즘에는 가끔 먹는 정도예요.
I used to eat it often when I was little, but nowadays I rarely eat them.

Here, 어리다 is “little/young.”
Its past tense is 어렸다. So you attach 을 때 to the stem to make 어렸을 때 “when I was little.”

Let’s also look at an example without a final consonant.

Ex.2)
올 때는 택시 타고 오세요.
Please take a taxi when you come.

Here, 오다 does not have a final consonant, so you add -ㄹ 때 to the stem and it becomes 올 때 “when coming.”

Quiz

・김치찌개 (         ) 뭘 넣어야 돼요?
What should I add when making a Kimchi jjigae?

(1)만들을 때 (2)만들 때

It’s very hard to pronounce the number one, 만들을 때, so the answer is (2).
만들다 is “to make.”
The stem finishes with ㄹ final consonant, so you add 때 to the stem and the answer will be 만들 때.

The whole sentence would be 김치찌개 (만들 때) 뭘 넣어야 돼요?

-(으)ㅂ시다 (Let’s~)

-(으)ㅂ시다 means “let’s (do something)/Shall we (do something).”

You can use it to suggest or propose to do something to a listener.

As we’ve already learned, you can use the 요 form to express the same thing as well.
For example, when you say 우리 같이 먹어요, it means “Let’s eat together.”

Since it is 요 form, this expression is polite and you can use it for daily conversation.

On the other hand, -(으)ㅂ시다 is more formal, so I notice that Korean people use it more often in public settings.
For example, when you watch a cooking channel, the host of the channel might say 다같이 만들어봅시다 “Let’s make it together.”

Now let’s learn how to apply it in sentences.
There are 3 major patterns of use, and they are applicable to only verbs:

1. First, when a verb stem has a final consonant, you add -읍시다.
For example, 먹다 “to eat” becomes 먹읍시다 “Let’s eat.”

2. Second, when a verb stem does not have a final consonant, you add -ㅂ시다.
For example, 가다 “to go” becomes 갑시다 “Let’s go.”

3. Third, when a verb stem finishes with ㄹ final consonant, you remove ㄹ and add -ㅂ시다.
For example, 만들다 “to make” has ㄹ final consonant, so you remove ㄹ, and add -ㅂ시다 to make 만듭시다 “Let’s make~.”

Ex.1)
시간이 없으니까 먼저 먹읍시다.
We don’t have much time, so let’s eat first.

In this sentence, 먹다 has ㄱ final consonant, so you add -읍시다 to make 먹읍시다 “Let’s eat.”

Ex.2)
이거 다른 사람들에게도 나눠 줍시다.
Let’s share this with others as well.

Here, 나눠 주다 “to share” does not have a final consonant, so you add -ㅂ시다 to make 나눠 줍시다 “let’s share with others.”

Quiz

・ 우리 여기서 잠깐 (        ).
Let’s take a rest here for a bit.

(1)쉽시다 (2)쉬웁시다

The answer is (1). 쉬다 is “to rest.”
Since the verb stem does not have a final consonant, you add -ㅂ시다 to make 쉽시다 “Let’s take a rest.”

The whole sentence would be 우리 여기서 잠깐 (쉽시다).

Conversation (Korean only)

Let’s try to listen to the conversation again only in Korean.
그럼 확인해 보세요!

  • 토미:상민 씨는 일본요리 좋아하세요?
  • 상민:일식이요? 우리 어머니가 좋아하셔서 어렸을 때는 자주 먹었는데 요즘에는 가끔 먹는 정도예요.
  • 토미:그렇군요. 이거 제가 좀 만들어 봤는데 어때요?
  • 상민:이거 토미 씨가 혼자 다 했어요? 와, 맛있겠다.
  • 토미:요리책을 보면서 만들었는데 한번 먹어 보세요.
  • 상민:와, 진짜 맛있다. 어렸을 때가 생각이 나네요.
  • 토미:정말요? 다행이에요. 혹시 싱거우면 소금이나 간장을 좀 쳐서 드세요
  • 상민:아니요. 간이 딱 맞아요. 이거 다른 사람들에게도 나눠 줍시다. 다들 좋아할 거예요.
  • 토미:그럴까요? 그랬으면 좋겠는데…

Conversation Practice

그럼 큰소리로 읽어 보세요!

  • 토미:상민 씨는 일본요리 좋아하세요?
    Tammy:Do you like Japanese cuisine, Sangmin?
  • 상민:일식이요? 우리 어머니가 좋아하셔서 어렸을 때는 자주 먹었는데 요즘에는 가끔 먹는 정도예요.
    Sangmin : Japanese cuisine? My mother likes Japanese food, so I used to eat it often when I was a child, but nowadays I rarely eat it.
  • 토미:그렇군요. 이거 제가 좀 만들어 봤는데 어때요?
    Tammy:I see. I made these. Would you like to try?
  • 상민:이거 토미 씨가 혼자 다 했어요? 와, 맛있겠다.
    Sangmin:Did you make all of these by yourself, Tammy? Wow, it looks delicious.
  • 토미:요리책을 보면서 만들었는데 한번 먹어 보세요.
    Tammy:I made it by looking at a cook book. Please try some.
  • 상민:와, 진짜 맛있다. 어렸을 때가 생각이 나네요.
    Sangmin:Wow, it’s really delicious. It reminds me of the time when I was little.
  • 토미:정말요? 다행이에요. 혹시 싱거우면 소금이나 간장을 좀 쳐서 드세요.
    Tammy:Really? I’m so relieved. If it’s not salty enough, please add a bit of salt or soy sauce and eat.
  • 상민:아니요. 간이 딱 맞아요. 이거 다른 사람들에게도 나눠 줍시다. 다들 좋아할 거예요.
    Sangmin:No, it tastes perfect. Let’s share these with others as well. I’m sure they’ll all love it.
  • 토미:그럴까요? 그랬으면 좋겠는데…
    Tammy:Will they? I hope so…

Homework

We have two homework assignments.

The first homework is to make 2 sentences.

For the first sentence, use -았/었을 때 “when I was~” and write about a wonderful memory that you have.
For example, I would write:

  • 설악산에 갔을 때, 그 아름다운 경치에 말을 잃었어요.
    “When I went to Mt. Sulak, the beautiful scenery made me speechless.”

For the second sentence, use (으)ㅂ시다 “let’s (do something),” to suggest your friend or family to do something exciting.
I would write,

  • 수족관에 놀러 갑시다!
    “Let’s go to the aquarium!”

The second homework is memorizing vocabulary.
Please memorize 40 words from #1321 to #1360 on page 17 of the Elementary Vocabulary List.
You can take a quiz on these 40 words on this website, so please try it out after you finish memorizing them.

That’s all for today!
그럼 오늘도 행복 가득, 웃음 가득한 하루 되세요! 한국어 화이팅, 화이팅, 화이팅!!

Vocabulary Test : 40 Questions

There will be 40 multiple choice questions in total displayed in random order, testing on Vocabulary #1321~1360 from the Beginner Level Vocabulary List.
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