[Learn Korean E45] “-기 전에”, “-기로 하다”

안녕하세요. 토미입니다.

The theme of today’s class is 【부산에서 만나기로 했어요】“We decided to meet in Busan.”

Today, we will learn two grammar rules; -기 전에 “before (doing something.)” and -기로 하다 “decide to do~.”

In addition, this is the 45th lesson.
Lesson No. 41 to 45 will be on the test.

그럼 시작할게요!

Listen to the Conversation

The theme of today’s conversation is 【부산에서 만나기로 했어요】 “We decided to meet in Busan.”

Sangmin is going on a business trip to Busan.
It seems that Sangmin has a plan to stop by on his way to the business trip.

Let’s listen to the conversation and find out where he is going.

그럼 들어보세요!

  • 토미:상민 씨, 다음 주에 출장을 가요?
    Tammy:Sangmin, are you going on a business trip next week?
  • 상민:네. 부산에 가서 시장도 조사하고 건물이랑 시설도 확인해 봐야 돼요.
    Sangmin:Yes. I need to go to Busan to survey markets, and check buildings and facilities there.
  • 토미:그렇군요. 부산엔 KTX 타고 가세요?
    Tammy:I see. Are you taking KTX to Busan?
  • 상민:아니요, 고속버스를 타고 가요. 부산 가기 전에 경주에 들러서 친척들 좀 만나려고요. 이번 주 주말이 설날이잖아요.
    Sangmin:No, I’m taking an express bus. I’m thinking of stopping by Gyeongju to see my relatives before going to Busan. This weekend is the Lunar New Year, you know?
  • 토미:아, 맞아요! 그럼 경주에 친척분들이 많이 계세요?
    Tammy:Oh, that’s right! Then you have many relatives in Gyeongju, right?
  • 상민:네, 큰아버지 부부가 계시고 사촌형이랑 사촌동생도 있어요.
    Sangmin:Yes. My uncle, his wife, and cousins are there.
  • 토미:그렇군요. 근데 상민 씨 혼자 가세요?
    Tammy:I see. By the way, are you going by yourself?
  • 상민:네. 우리 부모님은 외할머니를 뵈러 부산에 가세요. 그래서 다음 주에 부산에서 만나기로 했어요.
    Sangmin:Yes. My parents are going to Busan to see my maternal grandmother. So we decided to meet in Busan next week.
  • 토미:부산에는 외할머니가 계세요? 그럼 호텔에 숙박할 필요가 없겠네요.
    Tammy:Does your maternal grandmother live in Busan? Then you won’t need to stay at a hotel.

Vocabulary and Phrases

  • 토미:상민 씨, 다음 주에 출장을 가요?

다음 주 means “next week.” 출장 is a “business trip.”
Note that this word is pronounced as 출짱 instead of 출장.

  • 상민:네. 부산에 가서 시장도 조사하고 건물이랑 시설도 확인해 봐야 돼요.

시장 means a “market” or a “market place.”
So 시장을 조사하다 means “to survey markets.”

건물 is a “building” and 시설 is a “facility.”
So 건물이랑 시설 means “a building and a facility.”

확인 is a “check.”
So 확인하다 means “to check/confirm,” and 확인해 보다 means “to try to check/confirm.”

  • 토미:그렇군요. 부산엔 KTX 타고 가세요?

“KTX” is a Korean high-speed train you might get a chance to ride in Korea.

  • 상민:아니요, 고속버스를 타고 가요. 부산 가기 전에 경주에 들러서 친척들 좀 만나려고요. 이번 주 주말이 설날이잖아요.

고속 means “high speed” or a “highway,” so 고속버스 is “highway bus/express bus.”

경주 “Gyeongju” is a city with many historic buildings.
I hope you visit this place someday.

들르다 means “to stop by.”
Sangmin says 경주에 들르다, which means “to stop by Gyeongju.”
By the way, 들르다 is a verb with 으 irregular,so its 요 form is 들러요.

친척 means a “relative.”
Compared to English, the expressions to call relatives in Korean are quite more more detailed.
I will point out wherever these words come out during my lessons.

이번 주 is “this week,” so 이번 주 주말 means “this weekend.”

설날 is the “Lunar New Year.”
It is pronounced as 설랄 which the ㄴ part pronounced as ㄹ instead.

  • 토미: 경주에 친척분들이 많이 계세요?

is an honorific word to address another person.
So when you say 친척분 “relatives,” it sounds respectful, polite and more natural.

  • 상민:네, 큰아버지 부부가 계시고 사촌형이랑 사촌동생도 있어요.

큰아버지 is an “uncle (father’s older brother)” and 부부 is a “married couple,” so when you put these two words together and say 큰아버지 부부, it means “my uncle and his wife.”

사촌 is a “cousin.”
사촌형 is “a male cousin (who is older than a speaker)” and 사촌동생 is “a male or female cousin (who is younger than a speaker.)”

  • 상민:우리 부모님은 외할머니를 뵈러 부산에 가세요. 그래서 다음 주에 부산에서 만나기로 했어요.

외할머니’s 외- means “maternal~.”
So 외할머니 is a “maternal grandmother” and 외할아버지 is a “maternal grandfather.”
When you say 외삼촌, it means “maternal uncle.”
So, it is mother’s side brother.

뵈다 is a respectful form of 보다 which means “to meet.”
내일 뵐게요 “I’ll see you tomorrow.” is commonly used as a polite greeting.

  • 토미:부산에는 외할머니가 계세요? 그럼 호텔에 숙박할 필요가 없겠네요.

호텔 is a “hotel” and 숙박하다 is “to stay (overnight).”
So 호텔에 숙박하다 means “to stay at a hotel.”

필요하다 means “necessary” and its antonym is 필요(가) 없다 “unnecessary.”
So, 호텔에 숙박할 필요가 없겠네요 means “You won’t need to stay at a hotel.”

Grammar

-기 전에 (before doing something)

Next, I’ll explain the grammar, -기 전에 “before (doing something.)”

You can use it with verbs and express that an action is done before the following action.
Application of this grammar is pretty simple.

You just need to add -기 전에 to the stem regardless of a final consonant.
For example, 먹다 becomes 먹기 전에 “before eating,” and 오다 becomes 오기 전에 “before coming~.”

Then, let’s look at an example sentence from the conversation.

Ex.1)
부산 가기 전에 경주에 들러서 친척들 좀 만나려고요.
I’m thinking of stopping by Gyeongju to see my relatives before I go to Busan.

Let’s focus on 가기 전에. 가다 is “to go.”
You just need to attach -기 전에 to make 가기 전에, which means “before going~” or “before I go.”

Ex.2)
제가 여기에 살기 전에는 부산에 살았어요.
I used to live in Busan before I lived here.

Let’s look at 살기 전에는.
살다 is “to live.”
You need to attach -기 전에는 to the stem to make 살기 전에는 “before I lived.”

In addition, as you can see in 살기 전에는, you can also add -는, the topic marker at the end.
By using the topic marker, you can emphasize and clarify the fact that you used to live here.

Quiz

・회의가 (             ) 도착할 수 있을 거예요.
I think I can get there before the meeting ends.

(1)끝나기 전에는 (2)끝나는 전에는

The answer is (1).
끝나다 is “to end.”
You just add -기 전에 to the stem to make 끝나기 전에는 “before (it) ends.”

The whole sentence would be 회의가 (끝나기 전에는) 도착할 수 있을 거예요.

-기로 하다 (decide to~)

Next grammar is -기로 하다 “decide to do.”

You can express that you decide to do or promise to do a certain action.
You can use it for verbs, and place this grammar either in a clause or at the end of a sentence.
The application is pretty straightforward.

You just need to add -기로 하다 regardless of a final consonant.
For example, 받다 “to receive” has ㄷ final consonant, but the final consonant does not really matter in this grammar, so you just attach 기로 하다 to make 받기로 하다 “decide to receive. ”

Then, let’s look at an example from the conversation.

Ex.1)
다음 주에 부산에서 만나기로 했어요.
We decided to meet at Busan next week.

Let’s check 만나기로 했어요. 만나다 is “to meet.”
You just add -기로 하다 to the stem to make 만나기로 하다, which means “decide to meet.”
After that, you just have to make it into past tense such as 만나기로 했어요 “decided to meet.”

Ex.2)
서울에선 어느 호텔에 숙박하기로 했어요?
Which hotel did you decide to stay in Seoul?

Here, let’s focus on 숙박하기로 했어요? “decided to stay?” 숙박하다 is “to stay.”
You add -기로 하다 to the stem to make 숙박하기로 하다, which means “decide to stay.”
Since this sentence is a question form in a past tense, you make it as 숙박하기로 했어요?

Quiz

・이번 일은 누구한테 (                   )?
Who did you decide to ask for this job?

(1)부탁하기러 해요 (2)부탁하기로 했어요

The answer is (2).
부탁하다 is “to ask (for help or task).”
When you add -기로 하다 to the stem, it becomes 부탁하기로 하다, which means “decided to ask.”
Since this sentence is a question form in a past tense, the answer would be 부탁하기로 했어요.

The whole sentence would be 이번 일은 누구한테 부탁하기로 했어요?

Conversation (Korean only)

Now, let’s try to listen to the conversation only in Korean.
I am sure you can catch more grammar and vocabulary than before.

그럼 확인해 보세요!

  • 토미:상민 씨, 다음 주에 출장을 가요?
  • 상민:네. 부산에 가서 시장도 조사하고 건물이랑 시설도 확인해 봐야 돼요.
  • 토미:그렇군요. 부산엔 KTX 타고 가세요?
  • 상민:아니요, 고속버스를 타고 가요. 부산 가기 전에 경주에 들러서 친척들 좀 만나려고요. 이번 주 주말이 설날이잖아요.
  • 토미:아, 맞아요! 그럼 경주에 친척분들이 많이 계세요?
  • 상민:네, 큰아버지 부부가 계시고 사촌형이랑 사촌동생도 있어요.
  • 토미:그렇군요. 근데 상민 씨 혼자 가세요?
  • 상민:네. 우리 부모님은 외할머니를 뵈러 부산에 가세요. 그래서 다음 주에 부산에서 만나기로 했어요.
  • 토미:부산에는 외할머니가 계세요? 그럼 호텔에 숙박할 필요가 없겠네요.

Conversation Practice

Now, this is practice time! I will play the audio one sentence at a time.
This is a special time for you to practice, so please try it along with me.

그럼 큰소리로 읽어 보세요!

  • 토미:상민 씨, 다음 주에 출장을 가요?
    Tammy:Sangmin, are you going on a business trip next week?
  • 상민:네. 부산에 가서 시장도 조사하고 건물이랑 시설도 확인해 봐야 돼요.
    Sangmin:Yes. I need to go to Busan to survey markets, and check buildings and facilities there.
  • 토미:그렇군요. 부산엔 KTX 타고 가세요?
    Tammy:I see. Are you taking KTX to Busan?
  • 상민:아니요, 고속버스를 타고 가요. 부산 가기 전에 경주에 들러서 친척들 좀 만나려고요. 이번 주 주말이 설날이잖아요.
    Sangmin:No, I’m taking an express bus. I’m thinking of stopping by Gyeongju to see my relatives before going to Busan. This weekend is the Lunar New Year, you know?
  • 토미:아, 맞아요! 그럼 경주에 친척분들이 많이 계세요?
    Tammy:Oh, that’s right! Then you have many relatives in Gyeongju, right?
  • 상민:네, 큰아버지 부부가 계시고 사촌형이랑 사촌동생도 있어요.
    Sangmin:Yes. My uncle, his wife, and cousins are there.
  • 토미:그렇군요. 근데 상민 씨 혼자 가세요?
    Tammy:I see. By the way, are you going by yourself?
  • 상민:네. 우리 부모님은 외할머니를 뵈러 부산에 가세요. 그래서 다음 주에 부산에서 만나기로 했어요.
    Sangmin:Yes. My parents are going to Busan to see my maternal grandmother. So we decided to meet in Busan next week.
  • 토미:부산에는 외할머니가 계세요? 그럼 호텔에 숙박할 필요가 없겠네요.
    Tammy:Does your maternal grandmother live in Busan? Then you won’t need to stay at a hotel.

Homework

We have two assignments.

First, please make two sentences using today’s grammar.

For the first sentence, use -기 전에 “before (doing an action)” to tell us about some good habits that you always do before you do something.
For example, I would say

  • 저는 아침에 세수하기 전에 몸무게를 재요.
    “I weigh my body before I wash my face in the morning.”

For the second sentence, please tell us what you are determined to do this year!
For example, I would say

  • 책을 적어도 한 달에 한 권은 읽기로 했어요.
    “I decided to read at least one book in a month.”

The second homework is memorizing vocabulary.
Please memorize 40 words from #1401 to #1440 on page 18 of the Elementary Vocabulary List.
You can find the quiz on these 40 words on this website, so please try challenging yourself.

In addition, this is the 45th lesson.Lesson No. 41 to 45 will be on the test.

그럼 오늘도 행복 가득, 웃음 가득한 하루 되세요! 한국어 화이팅, 화이팅, 화이팅!!

Vocabulary Test : 40 Questions

There will be 40 multiple choice questions in total displayed in random order, testing on Vocabulary #1401~1440 from the Beginner Level Vocabulary List.
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