[Learn Korean E16] “과/와”, “Native Korean Numbers”, “Interrogatives”

안녕하세요. 토미입니다.

Let’s have fun learning a beautiful language, Korean!

The theme of today’s class is

저와 같이 영화 봐요.
Let’s watch a movie together.

The grammar we will learn today is [과/와] “and”, and native Korean numbers and interrogatives.

These grammars are critical to pass the TOPIK 1.

So, let’s do our best today, imagining ourselves speaking Korean fluently and being the super master of Korean!

그럼 시작할게요.

[Elementary Korean #16] "과/와", "Native Korean Numbers", "Interrogatives''

Listen to the Conversation

The title of today’s conversation is [저와 같이 영화 봐요.]“Let’s watch a movie together.”

First, let’s listen to the conversation with English subtitles.

그럼 들어보세요!

  • 토미:오늘 저와 같이 영화 봐요.
    Tammy:Let’s watch a movie together today.
  • 상민:좋아요.근데 영화는 몇 시에 시작해요?
    Sagnmin:Sounds good. By the way, what time does the movie start?
  • 토미:3시 30분이에요.
    Tammy:3:30.
  • 상민:아직 2시간이나 있네요. 그럼 우리 먼저 카페에 가요.
    Sangmin:We still have 2 hours. Then, let’s go to a cafe first.
  • 토미:네, 거기서 케익과 커피를 주문해요.
    Tammy:Yes. Let’s order a cake and coffee there.
  • 상민:그리고 3시 15분에 영화관에 들어가요.
    Sangmin:And then, let’s enter the movie theater at 3:15.

Vocabulary and Phrases

Now, I will explain the words and phrases, while reviewing the conversation one sentence at a time.

  • 토미:오늘 저와 같이 영화 봐요.

[오늘] means “today”.
Let’s go over expressions for days.
I’ll read them all at once.

[그저께] the day before yesterday
[어제] yesterday
[오늘] today
[내일] tomorrow
[모레] the day after tomorrow

[같이] means “together”.
A similar word is [함께].

[영화] means “movie” and [영화관] is “movie theater”.

Attention here!
In the conversation, Tammy says [영화 봐요], which means “let’s watch a movie.”
Actually, [요 form] is very useful because you can use it in two ways: one is a normal polite sentence such as “I do something.” and the other one is “let’s do something” like this example.

For instance, [카페에 가요] is “Let’s go to a cafe”, [커피를 주문해요] is “Let’s order a coffee”, and [들어가요] is “Let’s enter”.

As you can see, for beginners, [요 form] is very practical, so try to use it many times with your Korean friends!

  • 상민:좋아요. 근데 영화는 몇 시에 시작해요?

[근데] means “by the way” or “but”.
This is the shortened version of [그런데].
So, it’s also okay to say [그런데].

[몇 시] means “what time”, and [몇 분] is “what minute” and [몇 초] is “what second”.
When someone says [지금 몇 시예요?], it means “What time is it now?”

  • 토미:3시 30분이에요.
  • 상민:아직 2시간이나 있네요. 그럼 우리 먼저 카페에 가요.

[아직] means “still” or “not yet”.
The opposite word is [벌써]which means “already”.

We learned [(이)나] last time as a particle meaning “ ~and so on””.

Besides this, you can also use this particle to express “something was much more than you expected.”
For example, Sangmin said [아직 2시간이나 있네요].
This has the nuance of “Wow! We still have two hours before the movie.”

Koreans use [우리] often in their conversation. It means “we/us”.
For example, [우리 학교] means “our school.”

[먼저] means “first”.
The opposite word is [나중에], which means “later”.

  • 토미:네, 거기서 케익과 커피를 주문해요.
    Yes, let’s order a cake and coffee there.

[주문하다] means “to order”.
This is one of the words you will use the most when you visit Korea.

  • 상민:그리고 3시 15분에 영화관에 들어가요.

[그리고] is a conjunction that means “then” or “and”.
If you want to say “but” in an opposite situation, you use [그러나] instead.

Grammar

과/와

Next, let me explain about the grammar.
The first one is [과/와], which means “and.”
[과/와] can connect two nouns in a sentence.

These particles are a little different from the ones we’ve learned so far.

We have learned particles such as [이/가]、[은/는]and [을/를].
When a word ends with a final consonant, you add a particle with [ㅇ] like [이, 은, 을].

However, this time, [과/와] is the opposite.
When the last letter of a noun has a final consonant, you use [과], and when the last letter of a noun does not have a final consonant, you use [와].
This is a very important thing to remember.

By the way, [과/와] is the only particle that has this kind of exceptional pattern.

Other than that, it is straightforward and super duper easy.
So, let’s start going over the examples with a final consonant.
In the conversation, there was a phrase:

  • 케익과 커피를 주문해요.
    cake and coffee.

Here, [익] of the word [케익] has a final consonant, so you use [과] and it becomes [케익과] “cake and”.

Next, let’s look at some examples without a final consonant.

  • 토미 씨와 상민 씨는 친구입니다.
    Tammy and Sangmin are friends.

Here, [씨] of [토미 씨] does not have a final consonant, so you add [와] and say [토미 씨와].

Quiz

Now, let’s take a quiz to improve our understanding.
What letter do you think goes in the parentheses?

Q:[오늘은 박물관(  ) 도서관에 갑니다].
Today, I will go to the museum and library.

(1)과 (2)와

The answer is [과].
[박물관] has a final consonant so you add [과] and say [박물관과].

Native Korean Numbers

Next, let’s learn about the native Korean numbers.

There are two ways to count numbers in Korean.

The first is Sino-Korean numbers which we have learned in the previous class.
The Sino-Korean numbers are pronounced based on Chinese characters, like [일,이,삼].

Second one is the native Korean numbers.
As the word “native” tells, native numbers originally came from the native Korean language.

In today’s class, we will focus on the following three points.

 We will learn how to read the native numbers.
We will learn how to express time using native numbers, and Sino-numbers.
 We will master counters that come after the native numbers.

Now, then, let’s first go over how to read the native numbers.

① How to read the native numbers.
It is best to read the numbers out loud in an upbeat rhythm.
Let me count one to ten for you.

하나 둘 셋 넷 다섯 여섯 일곱 여덟 아홉 열

하나다섯
12345
여섯일곱여덟아홉
678910

Now, I will tell you how to count 11 to 20.

The rule is easy. If it is 「11」, you just need to say [열] which means 10, and [하나] which means 1.
Together it becomes [열하나].

Then, let’s count from 11 to 20together cheerfully!
열하나 열둘 열셋 열넷 열다섯
열여섯 열일곱 열여덟 열아홉 스물

Next, let’s go over how to pronounce the tenstogether.
열 스물 서른 마흔 쉰 예순 일흔 여든 아흔

ATTENTION HERE !
You can express 1 to 99 in native numbers.
In other words, you cannot say 0 or 100 or more without combining it with Sino-numbers.

② Let’s say the time!
Now, let’s learn how to say the time.
In Korea, you use native numbers with the hours, while Sino-numbers with the minutes and seconds.

From here, pay attention to how the word changes slightly when you use counters such as “~o’clock” and “years old”.

First, let me read it for you.
한 시, 두 시, 세 시, 네 시, 다섯 시, 여섯 시, 
일곱 시, 여덟 시, 아홉 시, 열 시, 열한 시, 열두 시

한시두 시세 시네 시다섯 시여섯 시
1 o’clock2 o’clock3 o’clock4 o’clock5 o’clock6 o’clock
일곱 시여덟 시아홉 시열 시열한 시열두 시
7 o’clock8 o’clock9 o’clock10 o’clock11 o’clock 12 o’clock

Here, four numbers have slightly changed.

First, [하나] becomes [한] to say [한 시] “1 o’clock”.
Second, [ㄹ] drops out from [둘] to say [두 시] “2 o’clock.
Third, In [셋], [ㅅ] drops out and it becomes [세 시], and similar in [넷], [ㅅ] drops out to say [네 시].
The same principle applies to [열한 시], [열두 시] as well.

Let’s read it together again paying attention to these numbers.
한 시, 두 시, 세 시, 네 시, 다섯 시, 여섯 시, 
일곱 시, 여덟 시, 아홉 시, 열 시, 열한 시, 열두 시

For minutes, you use Sino-numbers, which I have taught you last time.
If you have forgotten how to say Sino-numbers, please review the previous lesson number 15.

Then, let’s combine the hours and minutes to express the time.
[다섯 시 오 분] is 5시 5분
[열두 시 십 분] is 12시 10분

③ Native numbers with Counters
Next, let’s take a look at counters for the native numbers.

Here are the four counters that Korean people use the most.

[살] means “~years old”.
For example, you say [한 살] “one year old” and [두 살] “two years old”.

[번] means “~times”, so you say [한 번] “one time (once)” and [두 번] “two times, twice”.

[명] means “~people”, so it is [한 명] “one person” and [두 명] “two people”.

[분] also means “~people” but in a polite and respectful way.
For example, [한 분] “one person”, and [두 분] “two people”.

Quiz

Now, let’s check how well you have learned today’s content by taking a short quiz here.

Q:How do you say 11:30 in Korean?
The answer is 【열한 시 삼십 분】.

If you try saying the numbers out loud in various patterns like this quiz, you will gradually be able to memorize all of them.

Interrogatives

Finally, let’s learn about the interrogatives.

Tammy, the word “Interrogatives” already gives me allergy.
This is a grammatical term which means a word used in questions such as how or what.

In today’s conversation, there was a phrase

  • 몇 시에 시작해요?

Like this, when you ask for numbers like “what time” or “how many”, you use [몇] as the interrogative.

You can use [몇] for both Sino-numbers and native numbers, in the same way.

Let’s take a look at some examples.

”How old” is [몇 살].
“How many times” is [몇 번].
“How many (things)” is [몇 개].

This is easy as you just need to put [몇] at the beginning of counters.

Next, I will show you some points that you need to pay attention to for pronunciation.

You read ”How many people” as [몇 명(면명)], so the pronunciation became [ㄴ].

“What room” becomes [몇 호(멷토)], as the pronunciation becomes [ㅌ].

“How many years” becomes [몇 년(면년)] because the pronunciation changes to [ㄴ].

“What month” is [몇 월(며둴)] as the pronunciation becomes [ㄷ].

Attention here!
You read the word “how many days (what day)” as [며칠], as a single word.
Keep in mind that it is not spelled as [몇 일].
There is no word spacing.

Quiz

Now, then, let’s take a short quiz to wrap up the above and deepen our understanding.

① How do you say “How old are you?” in Korean?
The answer is 【몇 살이에요?】 or 【몇 살입니까?】

Conversation (Korean only)

Now, let’s try listening to the conversation again, but this time only in Korean.
그럼 확인해 보세요! Here we go!

  • 토미:오늘 저와 같이 영화 봐요.
  • 상민:좋아요.근데 영화는 몇 시에 시작해요?
  • 토미:3시 30분이에요.
  • 상민:아직 2시간이나 있네요.그럼 우리 먼저 카페에 가요.
  • 토미:네,거기서 케익과 커피를 주문해요.
  • 상민:그리고 3시 15분에 영화관에 들어가요.

Conversation Practice

Now, let’s practice reading it aloud. 그럼 큰소리로 읽어 보세요! Please, read it out loud!

  • 토미:오늘 저와 같이 영화 봐요.
    Tammy:Let’s watch a movie together today.
  • 상민:좋아요.근데 영화는 몇 시에 시작해요?
    Sagnmin:Sounds good. By the way, what time does the movie start?
  • 토미:3시 30분이에요.
    Tammy:3:30.
  • 상민:아직 2시간이나 있네요. 그럼 우리 먼저 카페에 가요.
    Sangmin:We still have 2 hours. Then, let’s go to a cafe first.
  • 토미:네, 거기서 케익과 커피를 주문해요.
    Tammy:Yes. Let’s order a cake and coffee there.
  • 상민:그리고 3시 15분에 영화관에 들어가요.
    Sangmin:And then, let’s enter the movie theater at 3:15.

Great job today.
Try reading it aloud at least 5 times.

Homework

First assignment is writing.
Let’s write the current time in Korean.

For example,

  • 지금은 열두 시 삼 분입니다.
    It’s 12:03 now.

Korean people also write Arabic numbers for time, but here we write it out for the Korean practice.

In the second sentence, please use [과/와] to tell me your favorite Korean food, dramas or pop songs.

Don’t forget to tell me more than one.

I would write like this.

  • 저는 떡볶이와 김밥을 좋아합니다.
    I like Tteokbokki and Kimbab.

The second homework is memorizing vocabulary.
Please memorize 40 words on page 4, numbers 241 to 280 of the beginner’s word list.
At the end of this page, you can take this 40-word quiz, so after you memorize 40 words, please challenge yourself!

You have completed today’s class to the end.
I am looking forward to seeing you again next time!

그럼 오늘도 행복 가득, 웃음 가득한 하루 되세요!
한국어 화이팅,화이팅,화이팅!!

Vocabulary Test : 40 Questions

There will be 40 multiple choice questions in total displayed in random order, testing on Vocabulary #241~280 from the Beginner Level Vocabulary List.
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